Short Analysis Paper 1Mahsa RouhaniEnglish 201, Graduate Writing 01, 2018Article 1: “Using social media for work: Losing your time or improving your work?” (2 pages)Subject MatterThe article “Using Social Media for Work: Losing Your Time or Improving Your Work?” (Leftheriotsis & Giannakos, 2014) is about whether employees use social media for work purposes and if social media affects employees’ work performance or not. In addition, this article refers to how Utilitarian and Hedonic values affect employees to use more social media in their workplace. Key FindingsSocial media is an advanced technology that people are using to communicate and collaborate with employees and customers at work. However, some companies believe it has a negative effect on employees’ work performance, but  some organizations don’t accept this statement. As an example, companies such as Beehive at IBM or Town Square at Microsoft, think that using web-based services such as Enterprise Social Networking encourages employees to share their work-related information as well as their personal information with each other. “ESN is an organization’s use of social media, internally and externally connect individual who shares similar business interests and activities”(Leftheriotsis & Giannakos, 2014). They claim that the ESN leads to a new way of working that naturally drives business alignment and help employees to motivate and be more productive. However, there are companies that believe SM inside the companies reduce employees’ productivity and they spend time on chatting instead of doing their work. In addition, a lot of researchers are using Utilitarian and Hedonic value to seek employees motivation. “Utilitarian is a rational goal oriented and the benefits depend on the efficiency of the process. Hedonic refers to the search for emotions such as happiness or enjoyment experienced during the social media usage and it is measured by the satisfaction that employees receive from the experiences.  But, in order to measure the connection between social media and employees’ work performance, researchers are performing some methods of analysis.Methods of AnalysisTwenty-five researchers from the National Institute of Insurance Studies (IIS) are performing the research from different insurance companies of the Greek market. One of the methods is visiting employees’ and asking some questionnaires on printed paper. Another method is sending an email with questionnaires to participants from distant cities. Then, they hold two conferences over the country links to the online questionnaire are distributed to the conference attendees.  The researcher perform an ANOVA to identify whether there is a relation between social media and work performance. “The results of the analysis indicated a significant positive relation of social media and work Performance F(2,1796) = 6.08, p < .005) (H3 Accepted)"(Leftheriotis & Giannakos, 2014).ConclusionsThere is a strong connection between the use of social media and employees work performance. The higher use of social media use for work, lead to a better employees' motivation. In addition, higher motivation leads higher result in employees' productivity and performance.Article 2: "Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking" (2 pages)Subject MatterThe article "Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking" (Vitak, Crouse, & Larose, 2011)  is about the limited number of cyberslacking behaviors and how to address these limitations. In addition, cyberslacking behaviors are measure by individual behaviors, the frequency of cyberslacking and the variety of cyberslacking.  Key FindingsCyberslacking is an employee's non-work-related activities such as online shopping, gaming, messaging, gambling, etc. According to a recent study, employees spend at least one hour of their time on the internet to do non-work-related activities and a high percentage of these employees using a computer to check their personal email addresses. A lot of companies believe these behaviors result in a financial loss as well as reducing employees' productivity. But, in some companies, cyberslacking is a way for shaping and promoting job satisfaction among employees and it also helps in loneliness and depression. However, there are some ways to address these limitations behaviors.Methods of Analysis"A recent study from the Pew Internet & American Life Project conducted a nationally representative telephone survey of 2134 adults living in the continental United States in March and April of 2008" (Vitak, Crouse, & Larose, 2011). The average participant in this study was estimated White/Non-Hispanic male individuals with the age 46.5 years old that have completed some college. Another recent study hires a nationally non-representative sample of American workers and tests the connection between nine cyberslacking behaviors and a variety of demographic and work-specific predictors. "According to a national survey of computer-using workers, Garrett and Danziger (2008b) found that occupational status, perceived autonomy within the workplace, income, education, and gender were significant predictors of cyberslacking" (Vitak, Crouse, & Larose, 2011). Two dependent variables were computed for variety and frequency of cyberstalking" Vitak, Crouse, & Larose, 2011. The first which is called cyberslacking variety, contain nine online activities that every participant reports the reasons why they use a work-related computer for personal use such as texting, emailing, watching videos, etc. The second variable, communicative cyberslacking frequency, contains four communication-based cyberslacking behaviors such as email, IM, texting, and SNS that lead to a greater range of communication behaviors employees may be using at work for personal reasons.  ConclusionsAs a result,  being younger, male, and a racial minority positively indicates cyberslacking variety and frequency. In addition, it is not only low-status employees the personal internet use merely it is more men who are well-educated employees in management or finance department.  Conclusions and Recommendations (1 page)In conclusion, there are negative and positive effect of using social media and cyberslacking behaviors at work. Going through the social media websites or using the internet and mobile technology for personal purposes lead to less productivity and loss of revenue. On the other hand, using social media at work or using internet for personal use help to a better job communication between employees and prevent depression. But, it is helpful if there will be a balance or limited access to these websites. Companies should monitor employees by installing some types of firewall security. This helps the company to not lose much in revenue and help in employees motivation and productivity.  ReferencesLeftheriotsis, L, & Giannakos, M. N. (2014). Using social media for work: Losing your time or improving your work? Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 134-142.Vitak, J., Crouse, J., & LaRose, R. (2011). Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1751-1759.

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