“Peace is possible for life at all stages and it is up to man to
choose his destiny or to suffer from the horrors of war. Today mankind is at
the crossroad where he has to choose with courage, determination and
imagination.” 

The above said articulation by Federico Leader delineates that now
it’s a high time for the humankind to bravely choose peace over war as it has
been going through a catastrophe. Harshness and violence have turned into a
rate of day by day happening in all aspects of the world, which is an intense
matter of alarm. The cruel demonstrations of savagery against humans, the violent
murders of innocents, terrorism, and injustice have become a severe truth of
our everyday life.

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The same occurs in a small “Democratic” country called Lebanon,
where the population is less than 4 million and is recognized with a wide range
of diversity. Lebanese people instead of taking advantage of this diversity to
live in social harmony, they forgot about tolerance and friendship, accepting
and respecting other among racial and religious groups, and formed separate
communities based on either religious or political affiliation that were and
still not open to others.

This has created many conflicts, struggles and fights till we
reached a civil war; a short one in 1958 and a protracted one in 1975, where
people became more and more attached to their religious and political
affiliation rather than their citizenship, and unfortunately the threats of war
are still in the air of the Lebanese society till now, moreover losing loyalty
to Lebanon and dropping the true meaning of democracy.

The war grabs hold of Lebanese minds and didn’t lose its grips yet
and unfortunately, Lebanese kids are clearly retaining the soul of violence
existing in the environment and becoming intended to be the resulting age of
culprits of viciousness. This violence surrounding them is shaping their
behaviors, thoughts and emotions. It becomes a part of their individual and
collective identity (Chrabieh, 2015). Therefore, the ultimate need to tackle
the issues of war opens the door to a new trend in the world calling for peace
through a lifelong education to support peace in the hearts and minds of kids.
Lebanon – country in war zones –  is in
need to educate the new generation about peace and to let them know that war is
not the right solution for our problems and conflicts. This education helps our
students understand the past and learn from it to prepare for a peaceful future
not only as absence of war but also as harmony living and respecting each other
within the Lebanese society, through Peace Education (Jabbour, 2013). 

Peace Education in UNICEF refers to “the process of promoting the
knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to bring about behavior changes
that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and violence,
both overt and structural; to resolve conflict peacefully; and to create the
conditions conducive to peace, whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal,
intergroup, national or international level”.

Based on the preceding definition of Peace Education, we can say
that the more mindfulness the students will have on peace, the better they will
be. For that reason, tension was giving on Cognitive Development of students in
educational settings believing that this will promote the children’s emotions,
social, moral and humanistic aspects (Dangwal & Srivastava, 2015).
Accordingly, number of notions, approaches, standards and behavioral skills
related to peace are being merged into school curricula in several countries
because there exists a worldwide educational realization that children should
be instructed in the art of living peacefully.

In this framework Maria Montessori’s hardworking repetition on the
need for peace education can be stated with respect and gratitude. Today we are
only reviving her visualization of peace education which she tried to tell the
world in the 1930s. For example, she said in one of her public talks: “Those
who want war prepare young people for war; but those, who want peace, have
neglected young children and adolescents so that they are unable to organize
them for peace.” Montessori’s vision of education offers a significant and
sound base for peace education. She truly believes that education is the solid
foundation of World Peace development and peace is not only end of war but also
many positive concepts that should be taught to the young generation through
peace education. These concepts include the learning of skills of non-violent
conflict resolution and respect for human rights. But, the contemporary
education models are forcing the educators to reconsider the way such skills
can be delivered to respond to the needs of the digital native, so, a
discussion on how the use of information and communication technologies (ICT)
can promote peace education has just begun.

In recent times ICT have extended maintainable prominence in
education, rising evidence from various studies that it provides support to the
nation that the use of technology in education creates the potential to improve
instructional design, development and delivery of content as well as access to
information but its potential to foster peace in educational settings is
relatively unexplored (Veletsianos & Eliadou, 2009). 

With regards to Peace and Conflict Studies, ICTs can assume a
critical part from various perspectives. On the positive side, communication technologies,
for example, the Internet can bolster peaceful, law based developments, advance
instruction, limit building, intercultural exchange and the foundation of a
helpful worldwide common society. They can likewise assume a freeing part in
procedures to beat dictator administrations, as has been shown by the 2011
upsets in the Arab world. On the negative side, ICTs can be utilized for
cybercrime, cyber warfare, surveillance, the spreading of extremist propaganda,
the suppression of democratic processes and other destructive purposes.

The
Vienna Conclusions – an outcome of the conference “ICT+ Creativity” held from
2-3 June 2005 in Vienna, Austria during the preparatory phase of the World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) – states the following on the topic of
cultural and technical diversity in the online world: “Whereas ICT is most
effective when it is standardized and uniform, content is most valuable when it
is varied and unique. Whereas ICT infrastructure strives to be culture-neutral,
content is most powerful when it intermingles with local cultures.”  The WSIS is being involved in encouraging
research into the use of ICTs to facilitate in bringing about a state of Peace,
specifically the ICT4Peace process. The WSIS also sought to encourage the
incorporation of ICTs into education as two of its key principles, succinctly:
connecting all education institutions, from universities to primary schools;
and adapting curricula to ‘meet the challenges of the information society’.
These key principles entail an affirmative solution, i.e. we must e-learn. This
is in accordance with the principles of the WSIS which indicates that
education, ICT and Peace can go hand-in-hand, and these principles have been
universally acknowledged, as well as analogous to the Millennium development
goals, especially building bridges in society and providing universal basic
education. Moreover, online communities allow individuals to show signs of
improvement comprehension of the general population around them, and feel for
them, get a comprehension of the causes and explanations for other individuals’
activities, collect data, and figure out how to work in groups. Thus online
communities can be viewed as a complimentary idea to ICT based peace education,
as they permit the taught knowledge to be put into practice, specifically
online communities set forward an open door where prior adversaries can meet
each other, talk through their disparities and attempt activities to make a
calm circumstance (Dangwal & Srivastava, 2015).

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