Music seems to change people’s moods and how people act. There is hype music and calm music, which these days we refer to as “get you in your bag music”. The hype music is rap music that’s fast-paced with loud bass that makes you focus more on the beat than the actual lyrics. The calm music “bag music” is the complete opposite of hype music. You focus more on the lyrics because most people can relate to what the artist is saying in his/her music. One day I was walking to school and I saw people I knew walking and listening to music, because they had headphones on. I noticed one student just walking and listening and the other student was bopping from side to side. This is what gave me my idea for my experiment, the timing was perfect. Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, I hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led me to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.My question is: Do different types of music raise people’s heart rates and changes emotions? Multiple things can affect the heart rate of a human being, movement, air temperatures,emotions, body weight (etc). This psychological question makes a lot of sense because music can affect emotions and music can take a toll on people’s emotions. Music can bring people to different mental states, especially if it’s someone’s favorite song or a song that makes someone feel sad. The music can change the moods of people and can change the body’s mood. There were similar experiments to mine and they have some surprising results, but I won’t know if mine is accurate unless I do the experiment. The other similar experiments have given me tips, suggestions and more ideas to make my experiment more accurate. My hypothesis is that about 90% of the students’ heart rates will decrease when their hype music is playing and emotions will change. I think when they play their calm music their heart beats will stay the same as their resting heart beat so no change will happen. The reason why I predict 80% is because I know the students’ heart rates will change in some sort way. All the information I have gotten, especially on heartbeats, has also influenced my hypothesis. The way the students might act towards their hype music, dancing or jumping around, is definitely going to have an impact on their heart beat, so I believe there will be an increase. Theoretical Foundations The first psychologist to pursue my question was Makoto Iwanaga who has a Masters and Phd in psychology at the Hiroshima University and has been studying if music has anything to do with heart rates and does it affect the moods of certain individuals. Once I found out this psychologist had a similar question to mine I had to record it because this was a huge finding for me. Ms.Iwanaga got her answer by taking 14 undergraduate women as subjects who searched for their favorite tempi by controlling the musical tempo by themselves. ¨The most preferred tempo was close to their cycle of heart beats, however, tempi that were one and a half and twice as fast as the heart rate were less preferred in the present study than in a previous study using a tone.¨ ¨Subjects preferred faster tempi in the descending series of stimuli than in the ascending one, and hence were influenced by the initial value of the tempo in the trial sequence.¨(NCBI) The effects due to the differences of the meaning of the stimuli are considered. Ms.Iwanaga’s conclusion was that the tempo they chose correlated to the subjects heart rate. This relates to my experiment because I wanted to see if music affects heart rate and tempo is germane to music so it made sense to choose her experiment. The second psychologist to pursue my question is Ayushi singh who has a doctorate in radiology and shes a physician and graduated from NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine. If anyone knows more about hearts it’s her. Ayushi experiment was about the Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults. She conducted her experiment over a period of 10 days to get better results. She used Three subjects per day to see if she would get different results for each during the procedure. Initially the subjects were made to sit down and relax for 5 min and their resting heart rate was recorded by the pulse oximeter what doctors use to check pulse. Me and Ayushi had the same idea for the resting heart rate by making them sit for a bit and instead of an oximeter I used an apple watch. The subjects were asked to run on treadmill at self-selected speeds and initial time was noted. ¨They were instructed to stop the exercise whenever they felt tired, fatigued or breathless¨(NCBI), I did have any of my subjects move because it would mess up my experiment. The ¨pulse Oximeter was placed on their index finger during exercise and their pulse was noted when it reached to its maximum and steady level. When they stopped the exercise, again time was noted. Total duration of the exercise was calculated by subtracting final and the initial timing. The following day, same subjects repeated the exercise.¨(NCBI) During the exercise, self-selected music was played which I found interesting because I made my subjects put their own music, I felt like it would help a bit more with the results. The subjects bodies maybe feel a different way towards the type of music being played on their phone. The third psychologist that talked about me topic was kawakami a graduate from tokyo university. He conducted an experiment on people and their emotions towards music. He conducted the experiment more than once to make sure he got the same results as before.The participants performed four tasks. The first asked participants to listen to the music and report either their perceived or felt emotion. The second required that participants listen to the music played in a different key to that used in the first piece and report their perceived or felt emotion according to which of these they reported in the first task In the third and fourth tasks, participants repeated tasks 1 and 2 but gave an indication of the alternate type of emotion (perceived or felt).”We used a traditional question to evaluate listeners’ feelings in response to the music “How did you feel when listening to this musical stimulus?” We evaluated each listener’s perceived emotion with the following question: “How would normal people feel when listening to this musical stimulus?” They asked these question to each and every participant. Though this method may appear to be an inadequate measure of perceived emotion, we presumed the following process: “This music sounds sad to me and most likely to other people as well. I cannot know how other people actually feel, but my best guess is that they will feel the emotion that the music portrays.(NCBI)”MethodologyThe setting of where I conducted my experiment could be flexible because its focus is on someone simply listening to music. The places where I conducted my experiment were at home and school on my friends and family member. I chose people that I was close to mostly because the comfort level I have with them and because I know most of their favorite songs. I also chose them because no matter what music I play they will be familiar with it. The experiment didn’t have an affect on who I chose. I’m friends with predominantly men so I chose them to make it more easier. It really didn’t matter who I chose or the age of the person because the music should impact everyone in the same way. In the experiment I have chosen 10 people all boys no females, no reason behind it.The way I setup the experiment was so the subjects won’t be able to move so they won’t mess up there resting heart beat. If the subjects were to move it would mess everything up and I would have to restart. I would first tell the subject to sit for 1 minute before the experiment will actually begin so their heart rate would go to resting heart rate. Secondly, I told the subjects to tell me their favorite calm song and one of their favorite hype song. I also told the subjects try not to move or move their head from side to side because it could affect their heart beat, motion wise. There wasn’t anything I didn’t tell the subjects because this experiment required me to tell them everything I did not want them to do that might raise their heart rate. I did the experiment in the afternoon of December 7th, 2017 on a Thursday. The way I recorded the experiment was with checking subjects’ pulse with my hands before and after the experiment. In the human body there are multiple ways to check a pulse and that’s wrist, neck and temple. After the experiment was over I asked the subjects did you feel your heartbeat raise? I asked do they feel any different from how they was a minute ago. I really didn’t collect any other data, I don’t think there was any more data to collect besides the subjects heart beat. I asked them how did they feel emotionally after the song was over, they basically said the same thing “nothing”.The subjects acted the same way before and after the music, you can’t really see anything externally but maybe internally. I was observing how the subjects were acting throughout the whole experiment to see if I would see anything different myself but I noticed nothing so I wasn’t surprised. I conducted the experiment twice because that’s what scientists do to make sure things are either the same or different in the experiment. I didn’t know because maybe one subject through the calm some was beating rapidly and had a resting heart rate during the hype song so I did the experiment twice. When I was doing the experiment I didn’t want to do anything because I was afraid it would mess up the experiment results. All the stuff I had the subjects were doing was fine and i felt as though I would get some accurate results from it. Of course adding or removing a step in this experiment, you would have gotten different results so I thought it was essential to keep all the steps the same. To conduct this experiment I needed something to record pulse and I knew that have this thing that records pulse so I used an apple watch. The songs that were chosen were modern day hip-hop music the hype and bag music. One song that was chosen a lot was gummo by 69 who is relatively new musician who screams a lot on his music and a very loud individual. Another song that was chosen frequently was a ¨bag song” by A Boogie called unhappy which is more slow pace and your more focused on the lyrics. Results of the Experiment After I finish conducting the experiment some of the subjects got up and started to stretching for some reason. The good thing is I told the subjects not to really move during the experiment so that’s what they did because that would mess up the results. During the experiment some of them tried to get into the full blown out jam to music mode but I wouldn’t let them. I told them to put max volume also so some of them were fidgeting with their ear. The other half of the subjects were just packed up and were on their way out of the building. They weren’t really doing significant for me to take a note of or record for me to put in the results end of the experiment. The subjects really didn’t do nothing differently from the other. They were only asked to perform a certain task and they all followed through. The only thing they’ve done different was chose some different songs and had different emotions after some songs. I couldn’t really tell the difference emotionally unless they tell me or if they cry or something to show change in their emotion, attitude (etc). They all showed the same aura before they were asked to do the experiment. They pretty much had the same reaction music wise and emotionally so yes they all had the same reaction. When i asked questions they all basically had the same answer, the reason I think they had the same response is because they only had a limited amount of freedom to do what they want during the experiment. One of the subjects Aaron, my friend, said that he was “hype” when he was playing lil uzi and wanted to move but he could not because i told him not to. The second subject my friend Mohammed said “I don’t feel right not moving” everyone wanted to move during their hype song because it was like thing to when listening to that type of music. The third person to have a similar response was my friend abdoul, he said ” I had to move just a bit it’s hard to restrain movement” to his favorite song. They all had something to say about moving it was like second nature to them to move during the song. Conclusion In conclusion we found out that most people heart rate increases while listening to loud and upbeat music music while as people’s heart rate decreases when they listen to soft and sad songs. This because of the tempo of the music and how the brain affects music. Based on the experiment I conducted, music does affect heart rate, but my hypothesis correct. Slower music proven to decrease heart rate, but faster music did not create an increase in heart rate as I had predicted. The experiment proved that all music decreased heart rate, although not as much with the faster music. In some individuals, the faster music did increase heart rate, but overall, this is not a trend. My experiment still supports the other experiments that I cited in my introduction that showed how music decreases heart rate. However music with a slower tempo causes the opposite effects on your heart rate, As the music gets you more active also because music competes for our brain’s attention, and can help us to override signals that reach the brain making us wanting to stop exercising. In other words different genres of music are said to cause different effects on your heart rate, which could lead to heart damage. The three conclusion that I got from the experiment is that music affects hearts rates, music affects emotion, and people have an urge to move during their favorite song. My hypothesis was correct when it came on to the heart rate. People hearts were slowed down like I assumed it would rather than go up, people usually think vise versa. I don’t really have anymore question on this topic I feel as though I know enough already. I believe you can’t go any more deeper with this topic enough is covered. The world shouldn’t react or change towards this topic it’s just good to know about it. If I were to do this study over again, I would have made some activity such as a simple puzzle or other activity for the subjects to do while doing the experiment in order to eliminate possible variables such as distractions or dancing to the music, and just let the music affect their brains and subconscious. I would also take their heart rates while they were listening to the music so as to avoid other possible variables.
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