Currently,
there are millions of undetected landmines all over the world. These landmines
are mostly used by the armed forces to attack their enemy or enemy
vehicles.These cause death of many humans while detecting and clearing
them.Several techniques for detecting mines include use of Metal detectors,
Acoustic sensors, Infrared imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Nuclear
Quadruple Resonance (NQR), X-ray backscatter, Electric Impedance Tomography
(EIT), Mechanical methods, Ground penetrating radars (GPR), Vapor sensors and
microwaves. Every technique is a double edged. By using multiple sensing
techniques, the mines can be detected precisely. EIT technique is one of the
efficient one. This EIT method is simple, affordable and lightweight. It can
operate under realistic environment conditions.  EIT is especially suited for wet lands and underwater, where
other mine detectors perform poorly and this is one of the most effective advantage
of EIT.It basically works on the conductivity distribution. It uses
electricity to generate an image of the conductivitydistribution.
It consists of bi-dimensional array of electrodes which are placed over the
surface to capture signals from the distribution of the conductivity. This
information can be used for the detection of mine. There will be conductivity
anomalies where mine is buried, hence this system can detect metallic as well
as non-metallic mines. This works well in wet soil but because of the weak
conductivity, does not work properly in dry soil like deserts or rocky
surfaces. Metal detectors or GPR technique can be employed for detecting mines
in dry soil regions. For clearing the mine, diethylenetriamine can be made to
react with the TNT present in the mine to generate heat, thus making the mine
ineffective and can be combusted later on.    

3.QUESTIONNAIRE:

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a) What is
your motivation behind participation?

b) What are
your specialized knowledge and expertise?

c) Previous
participation/awards/recognition if any

d) What are
you planning to exhibit? (Any one or a combination of things mentioned below)

?
Innovative ideas/ Concept through
graphics

?
Concept/technologies depicted through 2D/3D
models, simulations/animations/software

?
Concept paper presentations

? Mock Up/ Prototype
/Working Model

 

 

4.TECHNICAL
REPORT:

Electrical
impedance tomography (EIT) is a technology developed to image
the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technology
is of interest because of its low cost and also because the measurement of the
electrical conductivity brings direct information about the composition of the
conductive medium. Because the ground is conductive to a certain extent, the
technology can also be used to detect buried objects. The application of
landmine detection is of particular interest because the object is usually
buried at shallow depths and causes a discontinuity in the soil conductivity
that can be sensed from the surface of the ground. EIT utilizes low-level
electrical currents to probe a conductive medium and creates an image of its
electrical conductivity distribution. While a pair of electrodes is stimulated,
the electrical voltage is measured on the remaining pairs of electrodes. After
all the independent combinations have been stimulated, an algorithm using the
measured data reconstructs an image of the electrical conductivity distribution
within the volume. In the case of ground probing, an array of electrodes is
placed on the surface of the ground to provide an image of the conductivity
distribution below the surface. The EIT technology will detect mines buried in
the ground by detecting ground conductivity anomalies. The presence of a
metallic or nonconductive mine will disturb the conductivity distribution in
the soil. The signal characteristics are based on the size, shape,
conductivity, and depth of the buried mine.

A typical EIT detector consists of three major
components: the electrode array, the data acquisition system, and a data processing
unit. The electrodes are spring-loaded and can adjust with the terrain
variations. The data acquisition system incorporates the electronics and
firmware required for the electrical stimulation of the electrodes and the
recording of the resulting potentials. Typically the stimulation current is on
the order of 1 mA and the frequency of the stimulation is about 1 kHz. The data
processing unit is a software application that processes the raw measurements
using a mine detection algorithm based on a matched filter approach. The
detector response is precalculated for a replica of the size and shape of the
object of interest—for a number of grid locations underneath the detector. A
correlation is then performed between the detector response for the replica and
the actual detector response obtained from the measurements, for all the
replica positions considered. The position that yields the largest correlation
value is identified as the most likely position for the mine. The
three-dimensional graph represents the detector response as a function of the
positions in the x-y plane, in units of meters. The detector provides a similar
response for a metallic object, with a sign reversal. A smaller lab unit can be
built, suitable for objects with a size typical of antipersonnel landmines.

Ground-penetrating
radar (GPR) is
a method of detecting mines that uses radar pulses to image the
subsurface. This method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the frequency spectrum, and detects the reflected
signals from subsurface structures. GPR uses high-frequency (usually polarized)
radio waves, mostly in the range of 10 MHz to 2.6 GHz. A GPR
transmitter emits electromagnetic energy into the ground. When the energy
collides with a buried object or a boundary between materials having
different permittivities,
it may be reflected or scattered back to the surface. A receiving antenna can
then record the variations in the return signal. In this way we can find
out the presence of mines in dry soil regions.

Metal
sensors can also be used to detect the mines having a
comparatively greater proportion of metallic components.

Clearance
of a mine

Burning landmines is one of the effective ways to
clear them. Neutralizing the chemical components present in the landmine by
using particular chemical formulae can help in eliminating the landmines.
Various
organizations have been working to develop a chemical
solution for non-explosive mine neutralization. Four prototype chemical delivery systems
have been developed till date. Two systems use diethylene triamine (DETA),
which is hypergolic with TNT, Tetryl and TNT based explosives, whereas the
other two are based on binary chemicals. The first DETA system is known as
Bullet with Chemical Capsule (BCC). The second DETA based system is known as the
Reactive Mine Clearance (REMIC) device, which has an improved chemical delivery
performance over the BCC. The BCC uses diethylene triamine (DETA) in a
plastic bottle placed just above the landmine, over an area where the main
charge is located. The BCC delivery mechanism is a simple tripod. A bullet,
shot through the capsule and into the mine, ruptures the capsule, penetrates
the mine casing and enters into the explosive charge, carrying the dispersed
chemical into the explosive charge inside the mine. Within seconds a highly
exothermic, hypergolic autocatalytic self-destruction of the explosive charge
takes place and the explosive starts to burn. Neutralization is completed
within minutes, specific time depending on the size and type of explosive, and
type of mine case. The design is robust. The test results of BCC against
Antipersonnel mines and Anti tank mines can be observed in the following table.

Mine
Type

Designation

Casing

Explosive

Fuzed

Neutralization

AP

PMD-6

Wood

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AP

PMD-6

Wood

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AP

PMD-6

Wood

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AP

PMN-2

Plastic

TNT/RDX

Yes

Completely
burned

AP

PMN-2

Plastic

TNT/RDX

Yes

Completely
burned

AP

PMN-2

Plastic

TNT/RDX

Yes

Completely
burned

AP

Simulated

Steel

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AP

Simulated

Steel

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AP

Simulated

Steel

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AT

TMD-44

Wood

TNT

No

Completely
burned

AT

Large

Plastic

Comp.B

No

Completely
burned

AT

Large

Metal

Comp.B

No

Completely
burned

AT

Large

Metal

Comp.B

Yes

Completely
burned

 

The table shows that
the Bullet with Chemical Capsule (BCC) was 100% effective against tested AT and
AP mines. Theoretically, one could use this system to neutralize a mine buried
up to six inches in soil as long as the exact location of the mine is known, which
is achieved by using the above mentioned mine detecting techniques.

STRENGTHS:
Because both metallic and nonmetallic mines create conductivity anomalies, the EIT
and GPR technologies are appropriate for detecting all types of mines. EIT
method is especially well suited for mine detection in wet environments, such
as beaches or marshes, because of the enhanced conductivity of the moist
substrate, whereas, GPR method is highly effective in dry regions. Hence, a
combination of these two methods can achieve maximum possibility of detecting a
mine.

The advantages of using mine
neutralization method over other methods is that the chemical mine
neutralization systems provide a means to make demining safer, more reliable,
and less expensive.  Damage to surrounding
environment can be avoided. The system is reusable.

 

 

LIMITATIONS:
The primary limitations are that the EIT technology requires physical contact
with the ground, which might detonate a mine. The technology is also sensitive
to electrical noise. Performance deteriorates substantially with the depth of
the object being detected for fixed electrode array size, generally making it
appropriate only for shallowly buried objects or antipersonnel mines.The
biggest disadvantage is that sensors must be in close contact with the surface.
This increases the risk of triggering the explosion of the mine. It is only
useful for the detection of objects that are close to the surface.

The disadvantage of using GPR is that the higher
frequencies do not penetrate as far as lower frequencies do(penetration is
limited). It is also a highly expensive method. Other signals such as cellular
telephones, television, and radio and microwave transmitters may cause noise on
GPR record.

The main disadvantage of the clearance
method is that the BCC system is not effective against mines containing RDX,
PETN or plastic explosives. Moreover, the delivery system must be pulled away
from the mine once burning starts to prevent it from damage. The BCC requires a
large quantity of DETA, and it takes longer to burn the explosive due to the
small opening created by the bullet

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