Corruption is identical to venom which is devastating the
pneuma of our society steadily but surely. It has prevailed in our society in
such a modus operandi that it is a fair matter for
every person and even the refusing personalities are contemplated as ignoramus
by major part of society. Pakistan is ranked at 116th least corrupt
nation out of 175 countries by Transparency International in corruption perception
index of 2017 that depicts the picture of public sector institutions
(Transparency International 2017) whereas Pakistan police got the 13th
position in police perceptions index by Index Mundi (Index Mundi 2017 ). The
condition is so lamentable that a candid official is unable to perpetrate his
duties with veracity and truthfulness.
Some fairly definitive aspects
identified by Tim Newburn (1999) about police corruption are “It is ubiquitous-
corrupt practices are prevailed in some shape in police forces in all societies”,
It is continuing snag and its origin is evidenced from all stages of police
history”, and it is not only associated with lower ranks but corruption has
identified at all level of police organization”.
Police corruption in not naïve issue
but is found from the early and every stages of police history. Moreover it is
a problem that has prevailed in incessant nature so study to explore the
determinants of this problem is also requisite obligation of researchers. As
Tim Newburn (1999) argued that before identification of police nature and
preventive measures of institutionalized police corruption, it is obligatory to
explore the reasons that give rise to police corruption, what makes it
Mostly literature related to
determinants of police corruption focuses upon the urban police agencies
related to developed nations, primarily the United States (Debora, 2010). Furthermore
Debora (2010) suggested that research on determinants of police corruption in
developing nation should be pursued and models of developed nations should be perpetuating
to be endeavored to developing nations. All
the developing nations do not experiences the similar level of police
corruption, and their determinants and impact of police corruption are not
always same (Debora, 2010). In this paper we will try to explore the determinants
of police corruption in Pakistan.
Knowing about depth of corruption
and exploring its attributes are both basic and essential points to curb the
phenomenon of corruption. Fact-based information is mandatory to detect the
extent and nature of the corruption problem, find out the volatility and
methods within passage of time, exploring the roots of the behavior related to
corruption, creating knowledge about vulnerability of different modes of
corrupt behavior to tackle it, formulating the strategies related to recruitment
process, building standard tools to supervise to combat corruption related
activities, evaluating performance of existing techniques, maintaining basic
standards of promotion and performance of employee, and determine the human
resource practices to tackle problem of police corruption.
Nature, extent, volume and
methodologies related to police corruption can never be same around the world. Every
nation has its own religious, social, economic, and societal factors that lead
to develop pattern of behavior related to corruption. Although it is very necessary
to keep in view theories related to police corruption but to build upon fruitful
Q #1 Is there a statistically
positive relationship between officer cadre of police’s corruption and low
level’s police officer’s tendency toward corruption?
Q #2 is there statistically
significant relationship between police officer’s level of education and
officer’s tendency toward corruption?
Q# 3 is there statistically significant
positive relationship between police officer’s level of corruption and
corruption in government?
Q#4 is there a statistically
negative relationship between job satisfaction and engagement in corruption?
Q#5 is there statistically relationship
between salary of official and engagement in corruption by police officials?
Q# 6 is there statistically
significant relationship between leadership of supervisors and engagement in
corruption by police officials?
Q# 7 is there a negative relationship
between quality and quality of supervision in police force and level of
Q# 8 is there statistically
negative relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and
engagement in corruption by police officials?