Chapter 1 Introduction to Management- Critically compare and contrast the contributions made by the classical management perspective and the human relations perspective.Classical Management Contributions• Laid the foundation for later developments in management theory.• Identified important management processes, functions and skills that are still recognised today.• Focused attention on management as a valid subject of scientific inquiry.Human Relations Contributions• Provided important insights into motivation, group dynamics and other interpersonal processes in organisations.• Focused managerial attention on the processes.• Challenged the view that employees are tools and furthered the belief that employees are valuable resources.Contrast in Contributions  There are some differences between classical management theory and Human Relations theory.  The first differences between the two is that the classical management theory treated employees like robotic machines while Human Relation Management argues that employees are humans and therefore they should be treated like human beings and should be concerned with their worker’s needs. The second difference is classical management believes that incentives are used to motivate employees while human relations do not agree with it and believe that the organizations output is determined by the human relations at work and not by the economic and technological conditions of workplace. It means that if the co-operation and the relationship in the workplace was good then the employee will be more motivated to their work and produce more than expected. The third difference between the two is classic management theory made employees to follow the rules while the human relations theory encouraged employees to get involved in the decision making and ensure that the relationship was good in the workplace. Here, classical management was closer to the employee while human relations theory was more open to the employee things like them getting involved in the decision-making side. Another difference between the two is that the classical management theory encourages the workers to work individually when the employees are given a task to do while the human relation theory encourages the employees to work as a group to help build a good relationship within the workplace. Similarity in Contributions As for comparisons between the two, both perspectives are carried out to achieve only one thing, and no matter how many differences there are between classical and human relation management perspectives it all comes down to the same result, which is making more money for the owners of the businesses.Another comparison between the two is that Human relations management techniques and classical management techniques, are ways to make workers more efficient and easier to control in other words “manage”.Chapter 2 The Organisational Environment Discuss the ways in which an organisation can manage their external environment and their internal environment.External EnvironmentOne of the basic assumptions of business is that organisations are neither self-sufficient nor self- contained. They exchange resources with and depend on the external environment. Organisations take inputs (raw materials, money and labour) from the external environment. The many rapid changes taking place in the external environment of the organisations require increasing attention from the managers. The external environment contains numerous resources upon which the organisations rely on. This means that organisations are affected by what goes on in the environment. There are a few main elements that help organisations manage their external environment. The two I think are very important to an organisation are as follows, (Margaret Linehan, 2010)? Social Environment? Technological EnvironmentEach element deals with many factors.Take the social environment for an example, factors include Demographic, Geographic and Cultural. Each factor then if used correctly by the organisation can help with the management. An example from the demographic side would be the population. Any change in population affect the demand for products and services. Looking at the construction side of it, if a school was to be built, the organisation would have to look at things like the surrounding area of the purposed project. Stuff like hospitals, sufficient numbers of available housing etc.  to help manage their organisation. An example from the Technological Environment side of it would be communication. If an organisation communicates correctively like discussing organisational matters though emails and networks, ideas can be heard if agreed upon and carried out effectively could result in benefits for the organisation. Another example would be Computer Modelling Technology. Programmes that we use today in construction like Revit and Auto Cad construction organisations can use to their advantage from the start to the end of a project.Internal EnvironmentThe internal environment consists of a couple of factors, some of these factors include,? Customers? Competitors? Investors An organisation can manage their internal environment if the work on the factors that I have listed above. An example of one of the factors would be as follows, Customers – Managers must ask themselves two questions. What business are they in? in this case construction and who are our customers? If the managers can answer these two questions they can without a doubt seriously help their organisation. Customers – in construction, customers are everywhere, ranging from every individual who may be buying a product or service or in the construction side, a home. More customers include other companies small and big who may want to expand even more, an example would be McDonalds, McDonalds is a large Food Company who have restaurants all over the world, and for an organisation to have a relationship with such a company would be of huge benefit for the organisation itself as McDonalds if expanding even more could offer them a serious amount of work keeping them busy and well afloat. Chapter 3 Planning & Decision Making Table 3.3 in the ‘Management in the Built Environment in Ireland’ text book identifies three levels of planning in an organisation. What three levels of Planning advice would you give your placement employer if they were considering entering in to a new market as a means of growing their business. If my placement company were considering in entering into a new market to help grow their business, I would offer the advice in the following three areas, • Strategic• Tactical• OperationalAn example of some advice I would give to my employer from the strategic point of view would be to start off with would be establishing the goals and objectives that the organisation would have to carry out to succeed. Normally set out by the CEO of the organisation, the goals and objectives can be easy and hard for a company to reach. With correct planning and decision making a CEO can choose the correct goals and objectives that he/she may seem possible for the organisation to carry out and achieve. An example of some advice I would give to my employer from the Tactical side of things would be to have competent people in the middle management of the organisation. With the correct knowledge and experience the middle management can seriously help their employer grow in the market. An example of smart planning and decision-making form the Middle Management would be to give direction and allocate resources among each of the departments of the organisation. With the correct direction and resources, a company has serious potential in achieving the goals and objectives set out by the CEO in the Strategic Level. (Margaret Linehan, 2010)Finally, an example I would give my current employers from the Operational side of the decision and planning making would be aimed at the First Line Management, a project manager for example, the advice I would give him would be to focus on accomplishing task with the available resources. If he/she can do this, the organisation would grow financially and professionally. From my experience on my placement I have noticed and learned that resources are not always available. If a task must be carried out, I would suggest that they use each resource sufficiently and wisely with minimal waste and mistake. If this procedure is carried out it would speed up the construction stage, no mistakes and working with the available resources is far better than making mistakes and waiting for resources as it would only waste time. Chapter 4 Leading and Leadership Briefly describe the type of placement organisation that you are working in and the nature of the work that your employer is engaged in. Recommend with supporting argument the theories of leadership described in the text book you believe would work best for your employer’s organisation.I am currently approaching my 9th month working with JJ Rhatigan and Co. for my third-year college placement, JJ Rhatigan & Company is a construction company, with offices in Galway, Dublin, Cork, Sligo and London. The company’s portfolio extends from small scale building extensions, redesign and renovations to mixed use developments ranging in value from €1 million to €20 million, to large scale landmark developments ranging from €20 million in value to €200 million. The company is involved in the construction of a wide range of developments including university buildings, schools, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, offices and residential. The theory of leadership that I think would work best for my employer’s organisation would be the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Contingency Theory.I would recommend this theory as having ready about it and researched it, I have seen the potential and positiveness that can be achieved by following this theory. Named after three men, they suggested that the managers would carry out the decision making along with the employees. I agree with this suggestion as I think it could have a positive effect and result on the organisation.  They suggested that decisions are generally characterised by three variables, (Margaret Linehan, 2010)• The quality of the decision • The acceptance of the decision by the employees• The time needed for the decision to be made Each variable would play a vital role in the leading and leadership factor. Their theories proposed 5 main decision styles for leaders that depend on employees in the decision-making process. The one that stood out to me was Consultative II (CII)Consultative II is where the managers share the decisions to be made with the employees as a group and obtain their ideas and information, but the managers may or may not use the ideas generated when making the final decisions. I think this is the smartest option as it would give the manager a wider perspective into the decision. By working with the employees, the managers can learn and see things from them, learning new ideas could lead to a better result. Overall, I think for a manager to have his own idea and more ideas for the employees with the right knowledge he/she can make the correct decision for the organisation. If this idea is accepted by the employees it would work even better as the employees would have interest in the decision and to have a voice to be heard would make them enjoy their workspace and make them work harder.Chapter 5 Organising and Controlling Explain the following organisational structures giving your own relevant examples for organisations involved in the built environment.? Tall Organisational Structures ? Flat Organisational Structures ? Functional Organisational Structures ? Departmental Organisational StructuresTall Organisational Structures (Images, n.d.)The tall organisation structure consists of a large vine chart. The structure is broken up into many areas. An example is shown above, the tall origination normally consists of the Managing Director on top, then followed by the Regional Managers, then to the Project managers and finally site managers. This structure is very common in all construction. The idea is that the Managing Director of the organisation would give an order to the regional manager to whom he would then pass on to the project manager who would the finally communicate and organise with the site manager. In this specific structure and order or request from the top goes all the way to the bottom of the communication line and if communication is carried out correctly the order or request from the top is dealt with. Flat Organisation Structures  In the Flat Organisation Structure, we can see that its is very different from the tall organisation structure. Ideally a small construction company would use this structure while a big company would use the Tall Organisational Structure. What happens in this structure is that the Managing Director is the No. 1. The managing directing unlike the tall organisational structure is involved and communicates and organises with all parties in the company. Ranging from the Quantity survey to the Health and Safety Manager. I think this is also a good structure to work with in the construction stage if suitable depending on the size of the company. I think this would work great as the veins of the communication leaf are more direct, like if a message was sent down from the Managing director to a certain party or in some cases several parties the message would not be missed or misunderstood. Fuctional Organisation Structure (Images, n.d.)In the Functional Organisational structure, we can see that it consists generally of 3 levels. The top level would be the Managing Director, the second for example would be the Humans resource manager and finally the role which in the HR would be Industrial relations, payroll, training etc. In this structure the Managing Director of the construction company would communicate and organise with the head of each department in the company. Working with them he would be aware of each role and progress of each department, be it payroll, job vacancies, marketing or technical engineering. Departmental Organisation StructureIn the departmental Organisational Structure, the specific job roles follow the same hierarchical structure (Managing Director), starting with the decision-making and communications flow. For example, based on the structure above, the civil engineering department might flow from their department head to regional managers to project managers to the Managing director. The degree of authority, however, depends on company policies and often on the size of the business. In some construction companies, the project manager might focus only on organizing, planning and scheduling a construction project, leaving all responsibilities associated with site supervision to the project or site manager which is the way it is run on my current work placement. In other situations, the project manager might take a more direct field supervision role, requiring the site manager to follow and administer higher-level decision coming from him or even the Management above the Project Manager.BibliographyImages, G., n.d. Google Images. Online Available at: https://images.google.com/Accessed 6 November 2016.Margaret Linehan, P. G. a. E. F., 2010. Management in the Built Environment in Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillian.