Bullying is a major issue that affects many students all around the world. As it is well-known bullying reports are not always reported. This may be due to students not feeling comfortable or they may not know how to report incidents. In many cases, when incidents are reported not much is done to properly address the incident. Schools need to be more active in responding to bullying because it can negatively affect a student’s well-being. A few consequences of bullying include poor performance in school, depression, and suicide. Reports that go unresolved increases the risk of long-term effects of bullying. There are numerous bullying interventions and programs. However, many of these interventions may not be effective in preventing and addressing bullying. Hornby (2016) states many school interventions are not sufficient enough to impact bullying in schools. Therefore, an ecological perspective is needed, which looks at influences from individuals, parents, peers, schools, communities, and the society. Through the use of an organized and comprehensive ecological model, schools can effectively prevent bullying. Teachers do not need to wait for the school administrators to place bullying policies. Teachers can take matters into their own and help prevent bullying. They can implementclassroom principles on promoting respectful relationships, no tolerance bullying rule, and teach conflict resolution skills. Hornby (2016) mentions using Circle Time which is an evidence-based program used as a procedure from preschool to the high school level. This technique promotes positive relationships in the classroom, promotes social and emotional development, and increases students’ self-esteem and self-confidence. There are many things schools can do to reduce and help prevent bullying. Bullying interventions to be successful, schools need to be committed to creating a safe and positive social environment in which students can learn and develop. They also need to work with students and parents to develop a comprehensive policy on bullying that clearly defines bullying, and implements this policy throughout the school and community. The policy shouldinclude a plan of action to reduce bullying and training for teachers to intervene appropriately when incidents occur. The plan needs to be monitored regularly to ensure it is being implemented effectively. To make sure everyone is involved in preventing bullying, schools should be working with local communities in order to make the most of these designing intervention programs. Schools who have efficient involvement policies that include parents will find that parents be more willing to contribute in programs such as parent-teacher associations and parent governors (Hornby, 2016). An important way in which schools can support the community’s role in bullying prevention is to ensure that there is guidance and education for parents on dealing with bullying. Hornby (2016) article discusses a need for an ecological approach to bullying intervention in schools. This intervention provides steps schools should take to ensure effective bullying intervention. The ecological approach looks at everyone that can be affected by bullying and implements prevention strategies so that students can be better protected. The author states that in order for schools to practice an ecological approach to bullying prevention they must follow the eight necessary steps to bring change. The first step in the ecological approach is making a case for change. This includes staff being supportive of changes in school procedures. Staff should identify potential obstacles and discuss what changes need to be made. The second step is that schools need to form an implementation team. Hornby (2016) states, “To lead change it is necessary to bring together a team of people with the necessary skills and influence within the school” (Hornby, 2016, p. 227). This means that the team should have the knowledge, skills, and the competency to prevent bullying. Members should meet on a regular basis in order to continue implementing change. Step three is creating a vision for change which means developing a clear vision statement so everyone understands the bullying prevention procedure. Once a vision is created it should be communicated to everyone, which leads to step four. Step four is communicating the vision which includes procedures frequently repeated among staff, students, and parents. Hornby (2016) states these procedures should be repeated in staff meetings, school assemblies, parent evenings, school newsletters, and on school websites. The next step is empowering action which mentions schools must consistently examine their procedures to identify potential barriers to be made for change. This step is important because removing obstacles help teachers to easily implement changes. Hornby (2016) states that staff should be recognized for implementing change in the classroom. Step six is fostering short-term wins within a coherent vision. In this step, schools create short-term goals on ways to implement new procedures to prevent bullying. Hornby (2016) states fostering coherence involves being clear about the vision and how short-term successes contribute to wins. Step seven is building on the change. In this step, schools build on changes and identify what can be improved. Therefore, plans must be evaluated and procedures should be assessed. This ensures that changes are being monitored and new changes are implemented. The more schools foster and implement change, the better they will achieve long-term successful change. In addition to building on change, goals need to be set to continue building on the progress of interventions. The last stage is maintaining and embedding change which requires the change to become integrated into the culture of the school. This allows long-term change to be embedded in schools. However, schools must continue reaching out to students, families, and communities to ensure change is incorporated in the schools for long-term change.
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