Abstract—
This
paper is for retrospect the speed of single phase induction motor by using
Zigbee base wireless sensor network. Design of the system maintains security,
provide high reliability and also protect form many types of fault. The system
divided into two parts i.e. transmitter and receiver section which are
controlled by microcontroller. The microcontroller is also use for the support
of serial interface. The communication between those sections is made by Zigbee
transmitter and Zigbee receiver. The parameters such as voltage, current, speed
and torque of induction motor is monitored.  Induction motors are used in industrial,
residential, commercial and important applications. Single phase induction
motor are mostly use in home appliances and also in an industrial control. A
variable frequency drive for controlling the speed of rotational alternating
current electric motor is done by controlling the frequency of electrical power
supply and for driver and frequency control circuit.

1.     
INTRODUCTION

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The system initiated in
the paper is for monitoring the speed and torque in induction motors in real
time by applying Zigbee based wireless sensor network. AC induction motors
which contain a cage, are very famous in variable speed drives. They are
rugged, low cost and accessible at all power ratings. They are required much
more complex method of control, more expensive and higher rated power higher
rated power converter than dc and abiding magnet machine antecedently the
variable speed drive  had various
provisions such as inferior efficiency, extensive   space
lower speed and etc. Anyhow the power electronics seen entirely .Now a days variable
speed drive was a constructed, in trifler capacity exalted efficiency, violent
reliability. The speed of single phase induction can be manageable by various
type of control method such as pole changing stator voltage control, supply
frequency control, and rotor resistance    control.

2.     
ZIGBEE

Zigbee is use for high-
level  communication protocol which
create personal area network with small low-power digital ratio such as for
home automation, medical device collection low power low bandwidth needs, low
power rate, and low adjacency wireless . Zigbee is to be similar and less
expensive than other wireless personal area network such as Bluetooth or more
general wireless networking such as Wi-F. applicant include wireless light
switches, home energy ,monitors traffic management and other consumer and
industrial equipment that requires short rang low rate wireless data transfer
.its low power consumption limit transmission distance to 10-100 meters  line of sight depending power output and
environmental characteristics.

                                         Zigbee
devices can transmit data over long distance by passing data through a mesh
network of intermediate devices to reach more distance once. Zigbee is
typically use in low data rate application that essential long battery life and
secure networking. Zigbee has defined rate 250 kbit/s, best suited for
intermittent data transmission from sensor or input device. It is low power, low
cost, wireless mesh network standard target at the wide development of long
battery life devices in wireless control and monitoring application. Zigbee
device have low procrastination, which furthers reduces average current. The Zigbee
network layer natively support both star and tree network and generic mesh
networking. Every network must have coordinator device, task with it creation,
the control of its parameter and basic maintained. Within the star network the
coordinator must be the center node. Both trees and mesh allow the use of
zigbee routers to extend communication at the network level.   

Advantage of zigbee are
as follows.

All ZigBee compliant
appliances compatibly operate on the same network. Setting up ZigBee wireless
home management to manage home appliance network remotely system is relatively
in expensive. Ability to manage   home appliances remotely.

 

3. SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

In electrical machines
there is two speed i.e. synchronous speed and rated speed. The speed at which a
motor magnetic field rotates, it is a synchronous speed. This speed is the
motors theoretical speed if there was no load on the shaft and friction in the
bearing. Frequency of the electrically supply and the no. magnetic pole in the
stator are the two factor which affected the synchronous speed. The synchronous
speed is given by;                 

              Ns=120f/P……  (1)                                                      

Where; f = Electrical
frequency of the power supply in Hz

 P = number of pole

The speed of induction
motor can be varied in confined range by varying the voltage applied to the stator
winding. This method of wireless speed control is   adjustable
for such application, where load varies generally as the square of speed such
as centrifugal pump drives, fan load. The terminal voltage through the stator
winding of the motor can be varied for acquiring the   desire speed control by controlling firing
angle of the semiconductor power devices. The rotor speed of induction machine
is desperate from the speed of rotating magnetics field the percentage
difference of the speed is called slip.

          S= (Ns-Nr)/Ns…….(2)

Where, Ns=synchronous
speed

             Nr=rotor speed

The supply frequency
and number of poles of motor is directly proportional to the speed of induction
motor.  Since the number of pole is
decided by design the based manner to vary the speed of induction motor is by
varying induced in stator is proportional to the product of supply frequency(fs)
and air gap flux ?m as shown in equation

 E = 4.44N ?mfs …….(3)

Where, N=Number of turn
per phase

If the stator drop is
neglected, then E is equal to V as shown in equations (4).Then the supply
voltage will becomes proportional to the fs and ?m.

V=4.44 ?mfs …… (4)

Any deficiency in the
supply frequency fs keeping the supply voltage constant caus the increases of
air-gap flux (?m). To full use of magnetics material so Induction motor designed
to operate at the knee point of magnetization characteristics, Therefore the
increases in the flux will saturate the motor 
and distort the line current voltage , increases in core loss and stator
copper loss and produce a high pitch expressional noise Also, a reduction in
flux is also engorge to retain the torque capability of motor Therefore
variable frequency control below rated frequency is generally carried out at
rated air gap flux by varying supply voltage with frequency so as to maintain
V/F ratio constant at rated value .

4.      BLOCK
DIAGRAM

Ø  Transmitter

Zigbee Module

Computer Software

USB to Serial

 

 

 

 

 

                   Figure 4.1

 

 

Ø  Receiver

 

Zigbee Module

Microcontroller

AC Driver

LCD (16×2)

Single Phase
Motor Control

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           Figure 4.2

 

Working:

It is clear from the above block diagram that the
transmitter end consisting of Software for transmitting the data to the
receiver end. The zigbee module is attached with the system via USB to serial
converter for PWM data transmission. The receiver module consisting of Zigbee
receiver which will receive the logical data from the transmitter and send it
to the Microcontroller for speed control of the induction motor as per the
command given. The LCD connected with the microcontroller will display the
speed of motor.

 

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This paper based on the studies the speed control of
simple motor load using wireless technology through the microcontroller. The
motor is placing at a distance of about 20-25meters and the tested on the motor
to obtain various speed by pressing the stage of speed on the computer which
created by the software. Here the speed control of motor is carried out by
maintaining tON constant and tOFF is varied accordingly.

6.      CONCLUSION

This is one type of the method in controlling the
speed, which is employed for Ac drives. The speed control of ac motor is done
by using the zigbee wireless technology by the microcontroller. Zigbee is
available at low cost and covenant as well as it has high reliability and long
life.The experimental results are analyzed and, it’s seen that the speed of the
induction motor is controlled as per requirement using a zigbee technology.
There is 50 meters distance between the zigbee transmitter and receiver section.by
varying the voltage applied to the stator winding the speed of induction motor
can be controlled. For the centrifugal pump, fan load where the load varies
approximately square of speed the wireless speed control is most suitable.

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